5.2  Hydrocarbons

1. Fractional distillation of petroleum is used because the petroleum fractions have different boiling points

2. Hydrocarbon compounds: organic carbon componds made up of only carbon and hydrogen elements

  • Saturated hydrocarbons have single covalent bonds between carbon atoms
  • Unsaturated hydrocarbons have at least one double covalent bond or triple covalent bond between carbon atoms

3. Homologous series is made up of a specific group of organic compounds which have similar chemical properties

Hydrocarbon General formula Explanation
Alkane \(\text {C}_n \text{H}_{2n+2}\)
  • Saturated hydrocarbon
  • Has only single covalent bonds with other cabron atoms
Alkene  \(\text {C}_n \text{H}_{2n}\)
  • Unsaturated hydrocarbon
  • Has at least ine double covalent bond between two carbon atoms