Applications of the Concept of Rate of Reaction

4.3  Applications of the Concept of Rate of Reaction

1. Haber process:

  • combines nitrogen from the air with hydrogen into ammonia, condition needed:
    • temperature of 450 °C - 550 °C
    • pressure of 200 atm
    • passed over iron filings which functions as a catalyst

2. Contact process:

  • Sulphur is burnt in an excess of air to produce sulphur dioxide gas

  \(\text {S + O}_2\) → \(\text {SO}_2\)

  • Sulphur dioxide gas mixed with an excess of air at a temperature of 450 °C and a pressure of 1 atm is passed over vanadium(v) oxide to produce sulphur trioxide gas

  \(\text {2SO}_2 + \text {O}_2\) ⇔ \(\text {2SO}_3\)

  • Sulphur trioxide gas is dissolved in concentrated sulphuric acid to produce oleum

 \(\text {2SO}_3 + \text {H}_2 \text{SO}_4\) → \(\text {H}_2 \text S_2 \text O_7\)

  • Oleum is diluted with water to produce concentrated sulphuric acid

\(\text {H}_2 \text S_2 \text O_7 + \text H_2 \text O\) → \(\text {2H}_2 \text{SO}_4\)